ייחורים

ייחור הינה שיטה מתקדמת יותר שבאמצעותה ניתן ליצור מצמח אם, צמחים זהים גנטית ע”י השרשת ענפים. כלומר, באמצעות ניתוק ענף מהאם והשרשתו באמצעות הורמון השרשה,  בעיגולי JIFFY או צמר הסלעים, ניתן ליצור צמח חדש (זהה לחלוטין מבחינת גנטיקה ומין) לצמח האם.

לשיטה יתרונות רבים, בעיקר עבור מגדלים המעוניינים בתוצאות אופטימליות, אך היא מומלצת בעיקר למגדלים מנוסים יותר. היתרון הברור ביותר הוא שהייחור יגדל מהר יותר יחסית לצמח שהונבט באדמה ולרוב יהיה בוגר מינית מיד לאחר ההשרשה. בנוסף מכיוון שאנו מכירים את צמח האם, ברור לחלוטין איזה ייחור נקבל ואילו תכונות יהיו לו.

 ציוד דרוש לייחור


– חומר ייחור (כגון CLONEX)

– כיפה לצבירת לחות (פרופגטור)

– סכין חדה – סכין יפנית או סכים מנתחים, סקלפל

– קוביות השרשה (רוקוול צמר סלעים – JIFFY ג’יפי) 

 

 כיצד מייחרים

יש לבחור צמח אם בריא, בן חודש לפחות, ולהשקותו כ-24 שעות לפני המועד בו מעוניינים ליצור את הייחורים.

מומלץ לבחור ענפים בריאים, באורך של 5 ס”מ לפחות. יש לחתוך ענף מצמח האם באמצעות סכין חדה, בסמוך לגזע הראשי, בחתך אלכסוני (45    °) ולהכניס אותו מיד לכוס מים.

כאשר הייחור בתוך המים יש לחתוך את העלים בחלקו התחתון של הענף ולהשאיר רק סט אחד של עלים (או שניים) בחלקו העליון.

לאחר מכן יש לטבול את הייחור בחומר השרשה ולדאוג לכסות היטב את כל התחתית של הייחור בחומר ההשרשה (חשוב לא להחזיר את הייחור למים).

 יש לשתול את הייחור בקוביית  או בעיגול השרשה.

בשלב ראשון יש להשקות בצורה מתונה (לא להציף !) ומומלץ להשתמש בשפירצר על מנת לרסס את עלי הייחור.

כעת יש להניח את הייחור בכיפה לצבירת לחות (פרופגטור – Propagator). הייחור מוכן בשלב זה להשרשה. בשלב ההשרשה (שנמשך כשבועיים) על הייחור להימצא בלחות של 80% ומעלה, מכיוון שעדיין אין לו שורשים שיכולים לתמוך בו ועליו לאסוף את המים הדרושים לו מהסביבה.

רצוי להשתמש בשפריצר על מנת להרטיב קלות את העלים מדי יום. אין צורך להשתמש בנורות בעלות עוצמת תאורה גבוהה, ונורות מסוג פלורסאנט מספיקות בהחלט לייחור הצעיר, הרגיש בשלב זה של חייו לחום גבוה. 

כעבור שבוע או מעט יותר יחלו להופיע שורשים (זהו סימן שהשרשה החלה בהצלחה), וכעבור שבועיים עד שלושה שבועות, כאשר הייחור בעל מערכת שורשים בוגרת ניתן להוציאו מכיפת הלחות ולהעבירו לעציץ או מערכת הידרופונית על מנת שיגדל באופן רגיל.

 שימוש בצמר סלעים (Rockwool)

מומלץ להשתמש בצמר סלעים (Rockwool) על מנת לשפר את סיכויי הצלחת הייחור ועל מנת להקל על ההעברה והטיפול בייחור, בייחוד כאשר מגדלים צמחים במערכות השקייה סגורות. הייחור באמצעות צמר סלעים הינו באותה שיטה כמתואר למעלה אך יש צורך להשרות את צמר הסלעים תחילה במים (רצוי מים בעלי pH  5.5) במשך 12-24 שעות. לאחר מכן יש לאפשר לצמר הסלעים להתייבש במשך מספר דקות, כך שיישאר לח באופן אחיד אבל לא רטוב. בשלב זה ניתן כבר להכניס לתוך הצמר את הייחורים.

 שימוש בעיגולי ג’יפי (JIFFY)

מומלץ להשתמש בעיגול ג’יפי JIFFY על מנת לשפר את סיכויי הצלחת הייחור ועל מנת להקל על ההעברה והטיפול בייחור, במיוחד כשמשקים באופן ידני. הייחור באמצעות ג’יפי JIFFY הינו באותה שיטה כמתואר למעלה אך יש צורך להשרותו רק כ-15 דקות במים (רצוי מים בעלי pH  6). לאחר מכן יש לאפשר לג’יפי JIFFY להתייבש במשך מספר שעות, כך שיישאר לח באופן אחיד אבל לא רטוב. בשלב זה ניתן כבר להכניס לתוך הג’יפי את הייחורים.

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