מאמר בנושא אלמנטים ניידים (N

 

 חנקן –(N) Nitrogen  –

אמוניה חנקתית מתחברת לפחמן, מימן, חמצן ולמעט גופרית כדי ליצור: חומצות אמינו, אנזימים, חומצות גרעין, אלקלואידים.

חנקן הינו מרכיב ראשי בצמח. צמחים זקוקים להרבה חנקן בשלב הגדילה שלהם, אך ניתן להגיע בקלות לעודף חנקן. במקרה כזה יש לשטוף את מצע הגידול במים נקיים.

חנקן מסיס (בעיקר חנקות – ניטרטים) הינו זמין ביותר לשורשי הצמח, לעומת חנקן אשר צריך קודם להתפרק ע”י מיקרואורגניזמים במצע הגידול כדי שהשורשים יכולו לסופגם.

עודף חנקן יכול לעכב פריחה ונץ פרי.

  חוסר בחנקן

הצמח יהיה חסר חיוניות, גדילה איטית, הצמח יראה חלש ובהלם.

עלים ישנים יתבהרו או יצהיבו (כלורוסיס) – חוסר בכלורופיל, עלים אלה עלולים למות וליפול

כלורוסיס עלול להתפשט לכל הצמח, גבעולים פטוטרות ועלים עלולים להסגיל.

 עודף חנקן:

עלים בד”כ ירוקים כהים עלווה שופעת בשלבים מוקדמים של הצמח. אם עודף חנקן חמור העלים יתייבשו ויפלו בסופו של דבר.

מערכת השורשים לא תתפתח כראוי ואף יכולה להתדרדר. פירות ופרחים מעטים ומעוותים.

 

 זרחן – (P)  Phosphorus  

זרחן הינו מרכיב של אנזימים וחלבונים מסויימים, אדנוזינם טריפוספט (ATP), DNA ו (RNA),  חומצות פיטין (Phytin acid).

ATP  – הינו חומר המעורב ביצור וניוד אנרגיה בצמח. DNA ו RNA – הינם מרכיבים של הצופן הגנטי של הצמח.

 חוסר זרחן:

הצמח יצמח באיטיות, יהיה חלש ובהלם, גבעול ועלים בוגרים (בעיקר עלי שמש) בצבע ירוק כהה או סגול/אדום, העלים עלולים להצהיב להתקפל להתעוות ולמות.

מעט חוסר בזרחן בשלבי הפריחה הינו מצב נורמלי, אך יש לעקוב ולא לתת לזה להתפתח. פטוטרת וגבעולים אדומים או סגולים יכולים להיות צבע טבעי של צמחים ומינים מסויימים, כמו כן הסיבה לשינוי צבע יכולה לנבוע תסמין נלווה של מחסור בחנקן (N) , אשלגן (K) או מגנזיום (MG). כלומר צבע אדום או סגול לאו דווקא מסמן חוסר בזרחן!!

 הצטברות של פיגמנטים (anthocyanin pigments) גורמים לחלקי הצמח להיות ירוקים כהים עם גוון סגול אדום או כחול וזה סימן של מחסור בזרחן, ישנם צמחים וזנים שונים אשר מצהיבים במקום להסגיל.

 עודף זרחן:

עודף זרחן הינו מצב נדיר ונובע בשל מגבלת חומציות או כתוצאה מדישון יתר

עודף זרחן יכול ליצור חוסר זמינות של בברזל נחושת (CO) ואבץ (ZI).

 

 אשלגן – (K) – Potassium

אשלגן מעורב בניהול משק המים של הצמח ולחץ הטוגור (tugor pressure)   בתאי הצמח וכן על פתיחת וסגירת הפיוניות בצמח.

אשלגן נחוץ לאגירת והובלת פחמימות בצמח.

חוסר באשלגן יפגע ביבול ובאיכותו.

 חוסר באשלגן:

בתחילה עלים מבוגרים יאבדו מצבעם ובמהרה יחלו להופיע נמקים על העלים, תחילה הנמקים יופיעו בקצה העלה ובשוליו. הגבעול והענפים יהיו חלשים ויכולים להשבר בקלות. הצמח יתארך מעבר לרגיל. הצמח יהיה חשוף יותר למחלות ומזיקים.

עודף נתרן יכול לגרום לאי יכולת ספיקה של אשלגן – עודף מליחות בקרקע יכול לנבוע מ: עודף נַתְרָן מֵימָן פַּחְמָתִי (סוֹדָה לִשְׁתִיָּה), עודף דישון או עודף קומפוסט, עודף סידן או מזג אוויר קר.

 עודף באשלגן:

מאוד נדיר. עודף אשלגן יכול לפגוע בספיחת: מגנזיום, אבץ, ברזל וסידן. לרוב ייגרם כתוצאה מדישון יתר או מבעיות חומציות

 

 מגנזיום – (MG)  Magnesium

מגנזיום הינו מרכיב בכלורופיל, וכן מצוי באנזימים רבים.

 חוסר במגנזיום:

חוסר במגנזיום יתבטא בהצהבת עלים (שעלולים להפוך לחומים) וכלורוסיס בין עורקי העלה. בהתחלה תהיה פגיעה בעלים ישנים יותר, בקצות ובשולי העלים והתפשטות כלורוסיס לתוך העלה בין העורקים.

העלים עלולים להתעגל כלפי מעלה. יכול לנבוע ממים קשים מליחים.

המגנזיום יכול “להנעל” ולא להיות זמין לצמח בשל עודף סידן,  עודף כלור או עודף אמוניום חנקתי.

 עודף במגנזיום:

מאוד נדיר, יכול למנוע זמינות של אלמנטים אחרים.

 

 אבץ –(ZN) ZINC

 

אבץ הינו מרכיב חיוני באנזימים, יותר משמונים אנזימים מכילים אבץ בריכוזים שונים. אבץ הינו מרכיב הכרחי ביצירת כלורופיל ובמניעת התפרקותו של הכלורופיל.  

 חוסר אבץ

חוסר אבץ יתבטא ככלורוסיס בין העורקים בעלים חדשים , העלים יכולים להיות קטנים מהרגיל, המרווח בין בפרקים יקטן, שולי העלים מעוותים  או מקומטים. במקרים קשים ענפים שלמים ופירות עלולים למות.

יכול להיגרם בעקבות חומציות גבוהה מידי, בד”כ יופיע  יחד עם חוסר בברזל וחוסר מנגן.

יכול לגרום להלם בצמיחה החדשה של הצמח (קצה הגבעול) הגבעול לא יתארך אך ימשיך להצמיח עלים חדשים.

 עודף אבץ:

עודף אבץ הינו רעיל ביותר לצמח, יגרום למוות מהיר של הצמח. עודף אבץ מפריעה לספיחת ברזל דבר שיגרום לכלורוסיס בשל חוסר בברזל.

 גופרית – S – SULPHUR

הגופרית מעורבת בתהליך ייצור החלבונים וכן היא מהווה מרכיב בחומצות אמינו, החשובות כל כך להתפתחות טובה של צמחים.

היא מהווה חלק ממבנה הצמח והינה חיונית לפעולת הנשימה התאית של הצמחים וכן לבניה ולפירוק של חומצות שונות להן זקוק הצמח במהלך חייו

 סידן – CA – CALCIUM

סידן הוא אלמנט מאוד חשוב לחיי הצמח והוא מעורב בתהליכים רבים לכל אורך חיי הצמח

אחד התהליכים החשובים בהם משתתף הסידן הוא אחזקתם ביחד של כל תאי הצמח אחד לשני ומחסור בו יגרום לרבים מחלקי הצמח (ענפים, שורשים, עלים) להתעוות ולקבל צורות מוזרות כי אין מה שיחזיק אותם יחד.

כמו כן, הוא אחראי על הפעלתם של אנזימים רבים בצמח וכן על תהליכי גדילה ופריחה רבים.ד

 חוסר בסידן:

מאופיין בעיקר בעלים העליונים של הצמח, הם יקבלו צורות מעוותות ולא רגילות, כתמים לבנים יופיעו על העלים. המחסור עלול להיגרם עקב בעיות חומציות או כאשר ישנה לחות גבוהה או כאשר יש עודף מגנזיום או אשלגן.

 עודף סידן:

יקרה לרוב במצעי גידול הידרופוניים ובעיקר במצע גידול מסוג קוקוס (שכן לקוקוס ישנה נטייה טבעית לאגור כמויות גדולות של סידן). עודף שכזה יגרום למחסור במגנזיום ובאשלגן.

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